Basically, two types of performance assessment can be distinguished based on the degree of structuring:
Free procedures : These procedures usually consist of free descriptions of the assessors’ impressions. In contrast to bound procedures, they are often more subjective and have a lower level of reliability. Usually they are used in addition to the bound procedures.
Bound procedures : Bound procedures have a higher degree of structuring than free procedures. This has the advantage that, as a rule, there is better comparability between those assessed. Bound procedures can be broken down again into:
- Classification procedure: Here, assessment criteria are specified and assessed using a classification scale. Depending on the aspects on which the classification procedures focus, they can be further subdivided into behavior-oriented, result-oriented and property-oriented procedures. The former can take the form of behavioral expectation scales or behavioral observations. Results-oriented processes evaluate the employee’s contribution to the organization’s goals (degree of goal attainment) using goal-setting processes or goal-setting processes. Property-oriented methods focus on certain characteristics / properties of the person being assessed, for example teamwork, flexibility or resilience.
- Labeling procedures: These procedures indicate the extent to which an assessor fulfills the specified criteria. The assessor receives a series of descriptions and indicates to what extent they apply to the assessor. A distinction can be made here again between free selection procedure or checklist procedure, in which the assessor selects the appropriate characteristics from a list, and forced election procedure, in which he has to choose between statements, e.g. B. by the statements “right” and “wrong”.
The procedures differ in their methodological quality, ie objectivity, reliability and validity, in their practicability and in their construction effort.
The performance appraisal is a management tool for planning and controlling as well as a sub-area of personnel appraisal. It can be used to control the performance process in the company and offers employees and managers a starting point for performance improvements. The performance appraisal focuses on the performance, certain performance dimensions or the performance behavior of the appraised. Various assessment procedures can be used for this purpose (free procedures, bound procedures), each of which differs in its methodological quality and in its design effort.